Elementary-Secondary School logic model

Click on any linked activities to view samples of related research evidence. Click on linked outcomes to view sources of data for measuring outcomes and question wording examples to collect your own outcome data. If you're using a mouse, hover over linked items to highlight any evidence related items. Use the entire model as a map for understanding how the work of community development and health organizations collaboratively leads to improved community health.


Building materials
Community benefits agreement
Community engagement
Community plans
Contracting and hiring practices that support equity goals
Evidence-based practice literature
Feasibility study
Health Impact Assessment
Location, site
Sociodemographic data
Source of funds
Afterschool youth programming
Community gardening
Education on nutrition/healthy foods preparation
Employment of high quality, trained teachers
Financing development or rehab of school buildings
Financing for infrastructure that promotes physical activity and mental health (e.g., green space, playground equipment, community recreation facilities, walking path/trails, community gardens, sidewalks, swimming pools)
Health care services (e.g., those delivered by school nurse, child psychologist, social worker, and counselor)
Healthy food distributed at no cost to recipient (e.g. backpack program, food pantry, meal program)
Healthy meals and snacks
Physical education
Safe routes to schools/walking school bus program
Technology-enhanced classrooms
Use of building materials that reduce asthma problems (e.g. wood flooring, washable window treatments, HEPA heating and ventilation system, low VOC and lead-free paints)
Afterschool program participants (number of)
Community education participants (number of)
Community garden users (number of)
Dollars invested (amount of)
Jobs created/retained as a result of financing or programming (number of)
Physical education class participants (number of)
Playground equipment/gymnasium swimming pool/basketball court users (number of)
Safe routes to schools/walking school bus program participants (number of)
School buildings financed/ rehabbed (number of)
Students who purchase or receive healthy food (number of)
Students who receive health care services (number of)
Students who receive information on nutrition/healthy food preparation (number of)
Students who receive special education services (number of)
Access to health care increases
Asthma trigger exposure decreases
Enhanced academic instruction
Facilities for out-of-school-time activity increase
Knowledge of nutrition and healthy food preparation increases
Opportunities for physical activity increase
Perceived neighborhood safety increases
Positive attitude towards fruits and vegetables increases
Vehicle miles traveled decreases
Asthma problems among children decrease
Cognitive ability of children increases
Consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables increases
Food security increases
Health and well-being self-reports improve
Identification of social, physical, and learning problems occurs earlier
Language and literacy skills improve
Physical activity increases
Reduced sweetened beverage consumption
School attendance increases
Sense of community (social connectedness) increases
Social-emotional skills of children improve
Stress decreases
Academic proficiency scores increase
Diabetes rate decreases
Emergency room admissions decrease
Employment rate increases
Employment skills increase
Graduation rate increases
Health disparities decrease
Juvenile crime decreases
Life expectancy increases
Mental health problems decrease
Obesity rate decreases
Pedestrian and cyclist safety increases
Preventable hospitalizations decrease
Property values increase
Teen pregnancy rate decreases
Workforce quality increases

About this logic model

This example logic model provides a menu of typical inputs, activities, outputs, and outcomes for community development and health organizations that work in the Elementary-Secondary School field.

The activities listed in this example logic model link, whenever possible, to examples of research literature providing evidence that a specific activity leads to a health-related outcome included in the logic model. The outcomes link, whenever possible, to measures already collected through existing data sources and to measures that might require users to collect their own data through a survey, or other means. Click on these linked items to view the related evidence or measures.

Influence on social determinants of health:

Through education, elementary and secondary schools have a lifelong influence on employment, income, and other dimensions of well-being.

In addition to providing education, nutrition, and opportunities for physical activity, schools can connect households to needed supports and services.